ضرورت نظام دهی استفاده از سیگارهای الکترونیکی: مقایسه نقش قدرت پدرسالارانه، ترغیب نوجوانان و یا تقویت رفتار آگاهانه

مقالۀ پژوهشی | صفحات: ۱۳ - ۲۲
  • زهرا تخشید - مدرس حقوق، مدرسه حقوق هاروارد، دانشگاه هاروارد، کمبریج، ایالات متحده [ztakhshid@law.harvard.edu]

چکیده

مقدمه: پس از گزارش‌های مربوط به نرخ بالای استفاده از دستگاه ویپ و مرگ ناشی از سیگار الکترونیکی در بین نوجوانان، بسیاری از کشورها، منع کامل یا جزئی فروش سیگار الکترونیکی را در دستور کار خود قرار دادند. با این حال، تحقیقات متعدد و گاه متناقض ادعا می‌کنند که خطرات سلامتی ناشی از سیگارهای الکترونیکی کمتر از سیگارهای حاوی تنباکو (سیگارهای سنتی) است. این امر باعث ایجاد عدم اطمینان و شکل‌گیری رویکردی یکپارچه نسبت به تنظیم میزان استفاده و فروش سیگارهای الکترونیکی شده است. روش‌ها: این مقاله با استفاده از یافته‌های اقتصاد رفتاری، سه روش سیاستگذاری برای حل این مسئله را بررسی می‌کند که عبارتند از تحکم، ترغیب، آگاهی و تعالی. نتایج: در این مقاله براساس یافته‌های اقتصاد رفتاری، استدلالی ارائه شده که توضیح می‌دهد هنگامی که هنجار اجتماعی گسترده‌ای در استفاده از سیگار الکترونیکی شکل نگیرد، قدرت پدرسالارانه بهترین راه حل برای از بین بردن خطرات سلامتی ناخواسته مرتبط با استفاده از محصول است. در این موارد، میزان انزجار از ضرر اندک است و افراد به احتمال زیاد از قانون جدید پیروی می‌کنند. علاوه بر این، اجازه دادن به افراد سیگاری سابق در ارائه نسخه جهت خرید سیگار الکترونیکی از داروخانه‌های مجاز، راه حل مفیدی است که سیگارهای الکترونیکی را جایگزین‌های ایمن‌تری برای سیگارهای سنتی می‌پندارد. نتیجه‌گیری: برای محافظت از سلامت شهروندان در جوامع دموکراتیک، اقدامات محدود کننده اولیه، از ایجاد هنجارهای جدید اجتماعی برای یک رفتار ناسالم مانند کشیدن سیگار الکترونیکی جلوگیری می‌کند و بدنبال کاهش اینرسی تمایل به انزجار از ضرر، مداخله بعدی را تسهیل می‌نماید.

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نحوه استناد

Takhshid Z. Lessons from Regulating E-Cigarettes: A Case of Coercive Paternalism, Nudging, or Behaviorally Informed Boosting Iran. J Biomed Law Ethics. 2020; 2(1):13-22.

زهرا تخشید. ضرورت نظام دهی استفاده از سیگارهای الکترونیکی: مقایسه نقش قدرت پدرسالارانه، ترغیب نوجوانان و یا تقویت رفتار آگاهانه. مجلۀ ایرانی حقوق و اخلاق زیست‌پزشکی. 1398؛1(2):22-13.